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May 2017 Expedition of the Thousand Part of the wars of The beginning of the expedition, toat, northern Date 1860—1861 Location created; est.
A corps of volunteers led by sailed from Quarto, near now and landed in, in order to conquer theruled by the.
The project was an ambitious and risky venture aiming to conquer, with a thousand men, a kingdom with a larger regular army and a more powerful navy.
The expedition was a success and concluded with a that brought and Sicily into thethe last territorial conquest на этой странице the creation of the on 17 March 1861.
The sea venture was the only desired action that was jointly decided by the "four fathers of the nation"Giuseppe Garibaldi,andpursuing divergent goals.
However, the Expedition was instigated bywho utilized his political influence to bolster the project.
The various groups participated in the expedition for a variety of reasons: for Garibaldi, it was to achieve a united Italy; to the Sicilian bourgeoisie, an independent Sicily as part of the kingdom of Italy, ссылка на подробности for common people, land distribution and the end of oppression.
After the annexation of thethe Duchies of and and the to in March 1860, Italian nationalists set their sights on the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, which comprised all of southern mainland Italy and Sicily, as the next step toward their dream of unification of all Italian lands.
In 1860 Garibaldi, already the most famous Italian revolutionary leader, was in planning an expedition against Sicily and Naples, with the covert support of the.
Sicilian leaders, among themwere discontented with Neapolitan rule over the island.
This was needed for the House of Savoy, which however 5 gave any declaration of war against the Bourbon kingdom, a necessary condition, since this was among the requirements presented to Cavour.
The only occurrence that would have satisfied this requirement was an uprising from within.
Such an event would have felt the alienation of the people to the dynasty that ruled in Naples and, particularly, the inability of Francis of Bourbon, to ensure, in forms acceptable public policy in their domains.
Sicily, as shown by 5 history of the past decades, was fertile ground, and the liberal south, especially those returning after an amnesty granted by the young King, who worked in this direction for some time.
At first, Garibaldi was against it, but eventually agreed.
By May 1860, Garibaldi had collected 1,089 volunteers for his expedition to Sicily.
The largest number of volunteers came from 434 volunteersOther significant numbers of volunteers источник статьи from occupied 194 volunteers156 volunteersand 78 volunteers.
There were about 45 Sicilian volunteers and 46 volunteers—but only 11 from and the.
The majority of the volunteers were and from the lower classes.
The 1,089 volunteers were poorly armed with dated muskets and were dressed in a minimalist uniform—consisting of a red shirt and grey trousers.
During the night of 5 May, a small group led by "seized" two steamships in from the Rubattino shipping company which the ships were actually secretly granted by the company, but done in such approach to prevent taking https://chmall.ru/100/dezinfitsiruyushee-sredstvo-io-star-100-ml-five-star.html responsibility by in order to transport the volunteers to Sicily.
They took the two ships, which they had renamed Il Piemonte and Il Lombardo, to the nearby rocks at, where the volunteers including wife, Rosalia embarked for Sicily.
They landed aton the westernmost point of Sicily, on 11 May.
With British ships present in the harbour thus deterred the ships from interfering.
The Lombardo was attacked and sunk only after the disembarkation had been completed, while the Piemonte was captured.
The landing had been preceded by the arrival of and others, who had the task of gaining the support of the locals for the volunteers.
On 14 May, atGaribaldi блестящая SG-8030 стекло (23*48*8) 305*305 /298*298 that he was assuming in the name of King of Sardinia.
The battle boosted the morale of the Mille and, at the same time, depressed the Neapolitans, who were poorly led by their often corrupted higher officers, and started to feel themselves abandoned.
Having promised land to every male who volunteered to fight against the Bourbons the ranks of the Mille enlarged to 1,200 with local men.
On 27 May, with the help of a popular insurrection, the Mille laid siege tothe island's capital.
The city was defended by some 5 men, but these were under the confused and timid direction of generalaged 75 probably one of 5 Neapolitan officers bribed with English money.
When his troops were driven back from most of their positions, Lanza ordered them to bombard the city for three days, causing the deaths of 600 civilians.
By 28 May Garibaldi controlled much of the city and declared the Bourbon authority deposed.
The following day a desperate Neapolitan counteroffensive was driven back, and Lanza asked for a truce.
However, when a reinforcement party of well equipped and well trained troops arrived in the city, the situation became very serious for Garibaldi, who was saved only by Lanza's decision to surrender.
Through the mediation of a British admiral, an armistice was signed and the Neapolitan fleet abandoned the port.
The Bourbon troops were ordered to retreat eastwards and evacuate the island.
An insurrection that had broken out in on 31 May, led bywas crushed by the local garrison, but the order to leave for meant that this Neapolitan tactical success would have no читать полностью results.
At the time only, and remained in royal hands in Sicily.
In the meantime Garibaldi issued his first law.
A levy failed to muster more than 20,000 troops, while the peasants, who hoped to an immediate relief from the grievous conditions to which they were forced by the landowners, revolted in several localities.
Aton 4 August 1860, Garibaldi's friend bloodily repressed one of these revolts with two battalions of Redshirts.
The pace of Garibaldi's victories had worried Cavour, who in early July увидеть больше him a proposal of immediate annexation of Sicily to Piedmont.
Garibaldi, however, refused vehemently to allow such a move until the end of the war.
Cavour's envoy, La Farina, was arrested and expelled from the island.
He was replaced by the more malleablewho gained Garibaldi's trust and was appointed as pro-dictator.
On 25 June 1860, King had issued a constitution.
However, this late attempt to conciliate his moderate subjects failed to rouse them to defend the regime, while liberals and revolutionaries were eager to welcome Garibaldi.
At the time, Garibaldi had created the Esercito Meridionale "Southern Army"reinforced by other volunteers from Italy and some regular Piedmontese soldiers disguised as "deserters".
The Neapolitans had mustered some 24,000 men for the defence of Messina and the other fortresses.
On 20 July Garibaldi attacked Milazzo with 5,000 men.
The Neapolitan defence was gallant, but again the absence of coordination and the refusal of Marshal Clary, commander-in-chief of the army in the island, to send reinforcements from Messina granted the Mille another victory.
Six days later Clary surrendered the city of Messina to Garibaldi, leaving only 4,000 in the citadel and other forts.
The other strongholds surrendered by the end of September.
Garibaldi, however, disobeyed, an act основываясь на этих данных had the silent approval of King Victor Emmanuel.
The Bourbons had some 20,000 men in Calabria, but, apart 5 some episodes like that ofwhich was conquered at high cost by Bixio on 21 August, they offered insignificant resistance, as numerous units of the Bourbon army disbanded spontaneously or even joined Garibaldi's ranks.
On 30 August a conspicuous Sicilian army, led by general Ghio, was officially disbanded atwhile only minor and dispersed units continued the fight.
The Neapolitan fleet behaved in a similar way.
On 7 September Garibaldi took possession of Naples with little harm he entered the city by trainhailed as a liberator by the population.
In the meantime the invaded the conquering excluded through few battles such as theand entered the joining.
In the indecisive 1 and 2 OctoberGaribaldi, with a force of 24,000 men, was not able to conclusively defeat the Neapolitan Ссылка на подробности about 25,000 men.
Only the arrival of the army obliged the last organized Bourbon force to entrench in Gaeta.
A few days later 21 October a confirmed the annexation of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies to the Kingdom of Sardinia by an overwhelming majority.
The end of the expedition is traditionally set with the famous meeting in northern between Victor Emmanuel and Garibaldi 26 October 1860.
Others assign instead the end of the campaign to the King's entrance into Naples on 7 November.
However, the military campaign was not yet fully completed, as Francis II until February of the next year, when he finally surrendered to the army led byand left for exile in the.
Garibaldi asked the King to remain in the former Two Sicilies for a year as dictator.
He also asked that 5 officers be integrated in the new Italian Army.
When Victor Emmanuel refused to grant the dictator his request but agreed to integrate the men and officers, he returned to.
In the following 5, the rise of local resistance the so-called or brigandagerequired at one 5 the presence of some 140,000 Piedmontese troops to maintain control of the former Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
Traditionally, the handling of the brigantaggio has received a negative judgement by Italian historians, in strict contrast with the heroism attributed to Garibaldi and his followers; the English historianfor example, points out the deficiencies and reticence of the sources available for the period 1861—1946, but the same historian also pointed out the backwardness of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies at the time of the unification.
The expedition, moreover, obtained the support of the powerful great landowners of southern Italy in exchange for the promise that their properties be left intact in the upcoming political settlement.
Numerous Sicilian peasants, however, had joined the Mille hoping instead for a redistribution of the land to the people working it.
The consequences of this misunderstanding became evident at Bronte.
Vita di Francesco Crispi.
Risorgimento In Modern Italian Culture.
Garibaldi: Invention of a Hero.
Garibaldis "Zug der Нажмите чтобы увидеть больше in der Darstellung der deutschen Presse.
A peasant from Calabria had little in common with one 5 Piedmont, and Turin was infinitely more like Pans and London than Naples and Palermo, for these two halves were on quite different levels of civilization.
Poets might write of the South as the garden of the world, the land of Sybaris and Capri, and stay-at-home politicians sometimes believed them; but in fact most southerners lived in squalor, afflicted by drought, malaria, and earthquakes.
The Bourbon rulers of Naples and Sicily before 1860 had been staunch supporters of a feudal system glamorized by the trappings of a courtly and corrupt society.
They had feared the traffic of ideas and had tried to keep their subjects insulated from the agricultural and industrial revolutions of northern Europe.
Roads were scanty or nonexistent, and passports necessary even for internal travel.
In the 'annus mirabilis' of 1860 these backward regions were conquered by Garibaldi and annexed by plebiscite to the North.
Da Quarto al Volturno.
Noterelle di uno dei Mille.
Daghela avanti un passo.
Italy and Its Monarchy.
Nascita di una colonia.
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